Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World
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This section examines how the generic cost of CCTF fuels vary as a function the CO2 emissions price' with a focus on the cost of CO2 acquisition and emissions. For mi-croalgae biodiesel, we employ the linearly scaled overnight capital cost estimate escalated from to US dollars using the Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index  of ref.
The change in slope and discontinuous jump to higher values at the crossover CO2 price is due to the sharp increase in net GHG emissions that accompanies the use of pipeline CO2 as a feedstock. The trends seen in Figs. CO2 is captured from injected flue gas required power: 0. According to Dr. If the microalgal culture must be incubated in photobioreactors to avoid contamination, as indicated in ref. The high cost of MEA capture compared to standard post-combustion CO2 capture is due to the relatively low capacity factor of the unit. Thus, the cost of CO2 equals the rising CO2 emissions price plus the fixed cost of post fuel production CO2 capture and recycle.
Air Capture vs. Pipeline CO2. Note in Fig. Above that critical CO2 price, air capture will be employed, and CCTF will provide transportation fuels that are roughly carbon neutral. CCTF technologies have the ability to improve domestic energy security by creating transportation fuels from sunlight and waste CO2. When using CO2 captured from either flue gases or directly from air, CCTF can produce transportation fuels that are essentially carbon neutral.
CCTF most readily provides a significant climate benefit when coupled with large, point source emitters of CO2 that are actively harming the atmosphere, but these are expected to be "scarce resources" in the post-CCS era. Regarding the potential for climate mitigation under a steadily increasing CO2 price, CCTF may have an important interim role to play until the power sector becomes decarbonized, especially if widespread decarbonization is significantly delayed.
This raises the unusual possibility of the transportation sector becoming decarbonized before the power sector.
Electronic Green Journal
However, after decarbonization, CCTF has the potential to hinder climate mitigation efforts by providing a ready source of only mildly decarbonized domestic transportation fuels. Alternative CCR schemes like CCBF1, where carbon is captured and recycled many times, can produce very low carbon energy, but unfortunately not convenient hydrocarbon trans-. Department of Energy. Miller JE. Allendorf MD. Siegel NP. Hogan RE. J Solar Energy Engineering ; Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States Energy Information Administration.
Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Larson ED. Liu G. Williams RH. Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal and Biomass. Contribution of Working Groups I. K and Reisinger.
Mobility in a Climate Constrained World - OpenMind
Table 5. Inventory of U. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: EPA R Environmental Protection Agency. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H. Department of Energy Washington. Microalgae production from power plant flue gas: environmental implications on a life cycle basis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. Horsman M. Lan CQ. Dubois-Calero N. Biofuels from microalgae. Biotechnology Progress ; Martins AA. Caetano NS. Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; Kazamia E. Dennis JS. Howe CJ. Scott SA. Smith AG. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change ; Kreutz TG.
source link Chemical Engineering. Davidson O. Loos M and Meyer LA eds. Cambridge University Press.
United Kingdom and New York. Section 7. Prospects for producing low carbon transportation fuels from captured CO2 in a climate constrained world Academic research paper on " Environmental engineering ". The prospects for coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage: A UK perspective. In the nineteenth century, horse transportation consumed vast amounts of land for hay production, and the intense traffic and ankle-deep manure created miserable living conditions in urban centers.
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The introduction of the horseless carriage solved many of these problems but has created others. Today another revolution in transportation seems overdue.
Transportation consumes two-thirds of the world's petroleum and has become the largest contributor to global environmental change. Most of this increase in scale can be attributed to the strong desire for personal mobility that comes with economic growth. In Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World , the authors present the first integrated assessment of the factors affecting greenhouse gas GHG emissions from passenger transportation.
They examine such topics as past and future travel demand; the influence of personal and business choices on passenger travel's climate impact; technologies and alternative fuels that may become available to mitigate GHG emissions from passenger transport; and policies that would promote a more sustainable transportation system. And most important, taking into account all of these options are taken together, they consider how to achieve a sustainable transportation system in the next thirty to fifty years. In doing this it brings within a single set of covers a wealth of information, systematically presented, and, importantly, written in a way that can be followed by a non-specialist.
It is a very welcome addition to the literature. See All Customer Reviews.
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