Global Modernities (Theory, Culture & Society)
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Empirically, globalization involves the "conjunction of different forms of life" This is expressed concretely in the interaction between actors or groups holding different views of world order. How it works. How it changes. Nettl, J. I nternational Systems and the Modernization of Societies. New York: Basic. Robertson, Roland. Greenwich: JAI Press. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage. Featherstone, S. Lash, and R. Robertson eds. Frank Lechner Globalization theories. Analysis Definition. Each unit in the emerging world order takes shape relative to the others that surround it.
For instance, as nation-states become subject to universal standards derived from a common conception of humankind, citizenship in those societies become relativized. Similarly, the Realpolitik common in the international system also becomes relativized as humanitarian principles invade this arena. The relativization of societies as part of the inter-state system occurs concretely in revived concerns about national identity. Although globalization does not create a common culture in which everyone holds the same beliefs and values, it does create a single arena in which all actors pursue their goals by deliberate comparison with others, using at least some common standards as yardsticks.
Emulation takes the form of selectively incorporating ideas from a global arsenal Robertson a: 41; b. The universal ideas and processes involved in globalization necessarily are interpreted and absorbed differently according to the vantage point and history of particular groups.
In some cases, this is done strategically, for example when global marketers create local traditions on the assumption that difference sells a: More generally, glocalization captures the way in which homogenization and heterogenization intertwine a: Specifically, universalism and particularism have become part of a single nexus, united "in terms of the universality of the experience and, increasingly, the expectation of particularity, on the one hand, and the experience and, increasingly, the expectation of universality of the other.
Hence globalization is "a form of institutionalization of the two-fold process involving the universalization of particularism and the particularization of universalism" Globality is contested: "we are.
Some of these advocate a tightly integrated world, others defend difference; some envision global gesellschaft, others gemeinschaft Since religious traditions and movements are prominently involved in producing competing "world images," religion is a critical site for these contests cf. Inherent dynamics of globalization. World culture theory portrays the process as ongoing and open-ended.
All features of world culture, discussed above, entail continual change. Cultural conflict is the most common mechanism. Case in point: Islamic fundamentalism. While opposed to the form of globalization that produces a world of equal cultures, fundamentalism substitutes its own global vision. Fundamentalists attempt to define global fundamentals and operate in terms of globally diffused ideas , Multiple sources.
While world culture theory emphasizes the role of reflexivity and worldviews in globalization, in principle change can originate anywhere. World culture theory is causally agnostic. Sources Nettl, J. Publications on modernization theory have increased in number during each successive five-year period since Two main things have happened to the theory. Second, when other researchers discovered anomalies that could not be explained within the original theory, they did not abandon the theory.
Instead, they creatively extended it in new directions that could account for the anomalies, using such concepts as reflexive modernization, risk society, first and second modernity, ecological modernization, evolutionary theory, values modernization, multiple modernities, and global modernity. Abu-lughod J. Ahmida A. Alexander J. Arthur C. Clark R. Beck U.
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